It is clear that in twentieth century relations between East and West the discourse to which Foucault refers remains a function of power with reference to politics and economics, and that continuing myths about the Orient still form an important element in this. In addition we should note that the gradual disappearance of some historical images does not necessarily preclude the emergence of other more recent myths about Eastern societies and their cultures (35). Following Foucault as interpreted by Said, this thesis proposes to argue that negative aspects of western views of Turkish culture were in such circulation that by the twentieth century they could be adapted in a different way in mass popular fiction.
When Walter Montagu Gattie carried out a library investigation on reading habits in the 1880s, he noted that 'there is an enormous demand for works of fiction to the comparative neglect of other forms of literature' (36), and added that 'there is a decided preference for books of a highly sensational character most of which are altogether destitute of literary merit' (“What English People Read”, 320). Basing his investigation on provincial lending libraries, he discusses the fact that fiction seemed to be more popular than non-fiction and divided fictional texts into categories such as the 'light' and 'sensational' (“What English People Read”, 307-21), referring to one of the librarians' statements in order to emphasise the popularity of such types of texts: ‘The society novel and the sensational novel were much more popular and very much more read than the classical fiction of Dickens, Thackeray, Swift, Sterne, Smollet, and Richardson’ (“What English People Read”, 318).
Taking a similar approach examining the reasons for the rise and popularity of this particular genre in the twentieth century, W.T. Tyler (1984) argues that popular fiction does not count as serious literary work, and that it can be grossly labelled as 'pulp literature' or 'light literature', and essentially written for entertainment and read as a form of escapism, while more people read such books than ever read any classics by Shakespeare or Flaubert. When Tyler is asked for his opinion of the genre he states in reference to thrillers (37) that:
I think of the spy novel as a vehicle for entertainment rather than a forum for public education or getting my own views across (although the one doesn't exclude the other). To the extent that everything is sacrificed to entertainment as in most spy novels on the best seller list, few can be taken seriously (38).
As demand for popular writing grew, various types of popular fiction emerged, which can be classified as thrillers, spy, detective, espionage, or crime fiction utilising similar material. Besides entertainment value, Richards argues that 'popular fiction is one of the ways by which society instructs its members in its prevailing ideas and mores, its dominant role models and legitimate aspirations' (Juvenile Literature, 1).
An early example of popular fiction which first came out in Beeton's Christmas Annual in 1887 is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories. Following a first appearance in the cinema (1908) Holmes became the super sleuth of the screen and has come to be accepted as the most popular screen detective of all time (39). Conan Doyle produced the works in which 'Holmes knows all the possible causes of every single event... Holmes cannot go wrong, because he possesses the stable code at the root of every mysterious message' (40).
Another example is Kim, which appeared in 1901, twelve
years after Kipling had left India. Although it tends, in the first place,
to be a study of adolescence of the progress from boyhood to youth, and
from youth to manhood, Kim is considered by critics such as Edmund Wilson
and Edward W. Said as an imperial book with adventurous spy narrative (41).
Kim, the Asian boy with an Irish background, is left an orphan at an early age and brought up in the town of Lahore. After his father's death, he is sent to school by his father's old regiment, under the protection of Colonel Creighton and the chaplains of the regiment. Besides his education at St. Francis Xavier at Lucknow, he also starts to accumulate some useful information, for he is already destined to contribute to the Great Game, the Secret Service of the Government in India (42), and his mission for the British Secret Service leads him towards Tibet in order to help destroy the Russian menace in Central Asia.
While Wilson points out earlier the imperialistic strain in the novel by referring to the ending in which Kim returns to the British Secret Service as, in effect, an enforcement officer for the British against the Indians among whom he has lived and worked (43) Said criticises the book later as 'a master work of imperialism' (44). Emphasising the departure of Kim, who has already been taught some Asian virtues in India such as purity, humility and compassion by the Lama, for England where he will be trained in western intelligence methods needed in the Great Game, Wilson shows how the book establishes:
the contrast between the East, with its mysticism and sensuality, its extremes of saintliness and roguery, and the English, with their superior organisation, their confidence in modern method, their instinct to brush away like cobwebs the native myths and beliefs (45).
One of the common points between Kim and the Sherlock Holmes stories
is the chivalrous combination of power and knowledge represented through
the key figures - Doctor Watson of A Study in Scarlet (1887) (46)
and Colonel Creighton of Kim. While Holmes's faithful scribe, Watson,
is a veteran of the North-West frontier, whose approach to life includes
a healthy respect for, and protection of, the law, allied with a superior,
specialised intellect, Colonel Creighton, an ethnographer-soldier, is a
part of reference for the action, a discreet director of events, a man
whose power is eminently worthy of respect' (Introduction and Notes, 32),
and he sees the world from a systematic viewpoint embedded in his particular
interest in India for the cause of colonial rule. Moreover, the interchange
between ethnography and colonial work in Colonel Creighton is successful;
he can study the talented boy both as a future spy and as an anthropological
curiosity (Introduction and Notes, 33).
Another typical representative of the tradition is Erskine Childers’s The Riddle of the Sands (1903), a tale of a British patriot who uncovers a conspiracy by Germans preparing to invade England by means of troop-carrying barges. Reeva Simon argues that Childers wrote the book as a plea for the establishment of a British North Sea fleet (47) after the Germans passed a Fleet Law in 1900 supplying money for the construction of a battle fleet (The Middle East, 18).
John Buchan, who served in different British colonies militarily, notes his chivalrous ideas of the empire which can be interpreted today as racially prejudiced, in such works as Prester John (1910):
I knew then the meaning of the white man's duty. He has to take all the risks...That is the difference between white and black, the gift of responsibility, the power of being in a little way a king, and so long as we know and then practise it, we will rule not in Africa alone but wherever there are dark men who live for their bellies (48).
When he applied to the War Office to join the Army, and was officially
recommended to stay in bed due to his deteriorating health, he started
to write The Thirty-Nine Steps to overcome boredom. Writing the
book, the story of Richard Hannay dashing up to Galloway in search of the
Black Stone gang, he made use of his reading experience of thrillers. In
the following year, he wrote Greenmantle, based on the Russian capture
of Erzurum from the Turks early in 1916 while he was working as an Intelligence
It should also be noted that in the early examples of thrillers, the villains are usually chosen from either French and Germans or Russians while the protagonists are generally British, and settings vary in accordance with colonial competition and diplomatic manoeuvring. Since the literature of exotic lands satirises a wide range of such people in order to present its own heroes in a stronger light (49), Kim is represented as a hero of the British Secret Service in India, while his main opponents, or villains in the adventurous Great Game, are Russian and French spies, and 'they are pictured as bad men for they offer violence to a very good man, the Lama' (50).
As a consequence of the general idea that 'the heroes of popular fiction, like Quatermain, are gentlemen; the highest rank that a man can reach on this earth' (The Savage, 19), 'Buchan's hero in South Africa places himself specifically in the role of a knight when he meets Laputa, the powerful inciter of Savage hordes, and Henrique, the seedy trickster, in combat' (The Savage, 22).
The 1920s and 1930s reflect the significant influence of the classic
detective story, developed in the course of the previous century by Edgar
Allen Poe (1809-49) in America and by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1854-1930)
in England; and extended later by writers such as Agatha Christie (1891-1976),
Dorothy L. Sayers (1843-1957) or H.C. McNeil (1888-1937), the creator of
'Bulldog Drummond', who was widely read, and was also considered by critics
such as Noel Behn as the grandfather of James Bond as the heroic type (51).
The interrelation between Bulldog Drummond and James Bond has also been
emphasised by Andy East: 'Most surprisingly, Bond's principal predecessor
has been universally accepted as "Sapper's" Bulldog Drummond' (52).
Subsequent to the first appearance of Bulldog Drummond (under McNeil's
pseudonym "Sapper"), the Drummond saga included sixteen sequels, the last
of which was written in 1954 by McNeil's friend and biographer Gerard Fairlie.
While radio and television in both England and America presented weekly
serialisations, film producers made approximately twenty movies between
1922 and 1971 in which Bulldog was played by different actors such as Ronald
Colman, Ralph Richardson and Jack Buchanan (“Britannia’s Bulldog”, 363).
Thrillers also began to appear in popular American magazines like The Black Mask and Dime Detective during World War I, and became popular in the following decade (The Middle East, 25). The stories usually focus on corruption, and the hero/detective became a hardened professional, a cynic, and a loner operating against foreigners and the dregs of society, avenging wrong done against the average person (The Middle East, 25). These early magazine tales were simple ones of good against evil, cowboys against Indians in the American tradition (The Middle East, 25).
In the second half of the twentieth century, crime fiction still appeared to dominate the market as demonstrated by Lars Ole Sauerberg in his statistical investigation, Literature in Figures: An Essay on the Popularity of Thrillers (1983): The thriller in general, both in Britain and in the USA, came to enjoy a popularity distinct from any other kind of fiction (53).
As espionage became the most popular theme in the suspense field during the 1950s and 1960s, there was a paperback publishing explosion, so that by 1977 'spy and thrillers were widely read one in four of all new books published in the USA at the moment is a thriller of some sort' (54). Novelists such as Ian Fleming or Robert Ludlum became best sellers as soon as their books were introduced; while paperback editions and movies made from James Bond stories made 007 the most highly publicised spy-detective ever:
The paperback proliferation and the introduction to America of Ian Fleming's superspy James Bond via film in the 1960s shot spy novels and thrillers to hitherto unforeseen commercial heights and has accounted for the resurgence in popularity of the genre in America not only with the 'lower' classes but the middle class and college educated as well (The Middle East, p.v).
In her survey of the last eighty years of best-sellers covering the period between 1895 and 1975, Alice Payne Hackett remarks that:
Crime suspense, detection, mystery, espionage compose by far the largest special subject group among best sellers. Many of these multiple million sellers are close to the tops of both the paperback and overall combined lists (55).
In her long list of this special subject group among best sellers of the previous 80 years, and their sales figures, mostly in paperback, some names appear chronologically such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Mary Roberts Rinehart, Agatha Christie, Dashiell Hammet, Raymond Chandler, Eric Ambler, Graham Greene, Mickey Spillane, Ian Fleming and John Le Carre (80 Years of Best Sellers, 49). In order to show the overall popularity of thrillers, she also gives an example with some figures:
In 1965 The Spy [Who Came In From The Cold] sold more than two million in paperback. Not only the leader, but two other suspense stories were best sellers, illustrating the great appeal of espionage and romantic mystery in the 1960's (70 Years of Best Sellers, 225).
While Tony Bennett discusses this popular genre in relation to
technology, ideology, production and reading in his Popular Fiction
(1990), he points out that 'The study of popular fiction has expanded remarkably
over the past twenty to thirty years' (Popular Fiction, ix), as
he believes; 'In the many and varied forms in which they are produced and
circulated - by the cinema, broadcasting institutions and publishing industry
- popular fictions saturate the rhythms of everyday life' (Popular Fiction,
As the cold war has appeared as a theme in thrillers, more recently the post-war context shifted the fictional hero in moral terms which could be explained by Andy East's 'ranging from the hedonistic (Bond) to the cynical (Len Deighton's shadowy anti-hero) to the irrevocably weary (Le Carre's George Smiley and Alex Leamas)' (“The Spy in the Dark”, 24).
Thrillers after World War II frequently have Cold War settings, reflecting post war realities such as the suspect power triangle of the USA, USSR, and Red China, particularly during the period from the end of the Korean war (1950-1953) to the intensification of the Vietnam conflict (1961-1970). Also significant is the potential atomic threat stemming from Hiroshima as well as the first atomic test near Alamogordo, New Mexico in July 1945 (“Literature in Figures”, 24).
Many thrillers are based on the personal experiences and diaries of people who happened to stay in the area on different occasions; often written by veteran agents, journalists, military or official personnel (56). Reeva Simon discusses this issue and remarks:
By and large the most prolific non-professional spy novelists, some of whom have turned to writing full time, come from the ranks of the foreign service and journalism. Hands-on political experience and intensive coverage of many areas of the world provide ready-made plot material (The Middle East, 32).
Among the names of western thriller writers of this tradition from different
countries are Efrem Sigel, Richard Rohmer, E.Howard Hunt, F. van Wyck Mason,
Geoffrey Household, Stewart Jackman, William Haggard, Clive Egleton, Simon
Harvester and Alec Waugh; for example, Alec Waugh wrote his thriller The
Mule on the Minaret (1966) basing the story on his personal experiences
when he worked in counter espionage during World War II in Syria, Lebanon,
and Iraq (The Middle East, 32). Eric Pace of The New York Times
wrote, Nightingale (1979), which is about the theft of the Iranian
crown jewels and a chase through the ruins of Persepolis, and Any War
Will Do (1973), on international gun-running, beginning with a scene
in Baghdad and using his own experiences of these places (The Middle
Reeva Simon examines the function of the Middle East in thrillers and points out the rising popularity of the region in this genre in the post war period:
By 1985 more than six hundred thrillers and spy novels using the Middle East as a backdrop for action or for characterisation or plot material had appeared in the United States as British imports or as American originals (The Middle East, Vll).
One of the well-known spy novelists, Eric Ambler explains in an interview the reason why he frequently chooses the Middle East as his favourite setting, confessing that 'I've always liked the baroque. I've a taste for it. It is like a Turkish delight-stickily sweet and jelly-like and you can't stop eating it' (57). He tends to emphasise the eccentric combination of shoddiness and beauty of the region that he claims provides a suitable atmosphere for the exotic and dubious stories of his thrillers (The Middle East, 6).
Most twentieth century thrillers, set in the Middle East seem to have stereotypical characters and plots. Tyler suggests that 'the characters are generally stereotypes, the action absurdly melodramatic, and the writing usually bad' (“Letter”). The previous image of the Arabs which, in the hands of nineteenth century travel writers, characterised them as camel-riding tribesmen and savages, transforms then in the works of thriller writers of the 1960s and 1970s, into oilmen and entrepreneurial owners of disposable cadillacs.
Pre-1960s villains of this genre are mainly straightforward military men, interchangeable with Eastern Europeans or Banana Republicans, or Communist agents trying to subvert the area and wrest it from British control. But in the wake of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, sensational hijacking plots, assassinations, bombings, kidnappings have provided scenarios for thrillers, so that terrorism, which can be defined as political exposition through violence, has become increasingly common subject matter.
Another popular related theme is the Islamic threat, which has been a motif since John Buchan's Greenmantle (1916). This theme is employed in Assassins' Road (1965) which concerns the pursuit of an elusive master terrorist, 'the Prophet', whose activities in the Middle East threaten to trigger Jihad or Holy war. Furthermore, as 'the spy novel is very much a recitative of popular cliché' (“Letter”), the truly outrageous villains, caricaturised as ugly, oily, deformed, sweaty, sadistic, etc. still appear. These are modern stereotypes that mirror early characterisations of Islam and the Prophet as the western conception of Middle Easterners and Muslims.
I have chosen a selection of texts taken fairly randomly, in some cases best sellers, but in other cases texts that are in my view typical of the genre, and the ways in which those writers seek to depict Turkey and the Turks will also be investigated. Having begun with the random selection of the texts, what emerges is consensus in terms of representation of Turkey and its people. While some usually choose intriguing stories of murder embellished with historical peculiarities, exotic locales such as the historic sites of Istanbul, and the eccentric figures with bizarre reputations such as the eunuch of the harem, others prefer some cold war trappings such as espionage, counter espionage and uncovering of political assassinations.
In the course of this investigation I will also argue that there appear certain patterns and consistencies which can be traced in the texts under diverse headings such as drug and antique smuggling, robberies, hashish growing and producing, coup attempts and above all, various acts of brutality and masochism occasionally leading to perversion. They reveal similar historical, cultural and religious misconceptions and stereotypes in attribution to the Turks. While the people are generally represented with negative characteristics with particular emphasis on their physical distortions and cultural peculiarities, some texts tend to present religious and historical motifs as the main excuses in their negative depiction of the country.
In some cases, a negative attitude is implicitly or explicitly
conveyed through the personal interpretation of the narrator (hero) by
referring to western sources about the region, whereas it is introduced
in some others through imaginary characters of unusual traits who are usually
described as villains. In addition, these patterns and consistencies are
going to be discussed in detail with reference to some particular texts
such as The Eunuch of Stamboul (1935), Diamonds Bid (1967)
and Trip Trap (1972), chosen as typical examples of the genre.
35-In reference to power-discourse relations, Said
discusses the continuity of popular images and social science representations
of the East, noticeably after each of the Arab-Israeli wars as the Arab
Muslim became a figure in American popular culture. There has been a major
change in the international configuration of forces in which France and
Britain no longer occupy centre stage in world politics whereas American
imperialism has replaced them. See: Edward W. Said, Orientalism (London:
Penguin, 1978) and Culture and Imperialism (London: Chatto and Windus,
1993). Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in
the texts, by mentioning its title, 'Culture and Imperialism’'
A similar conclusion has been made by John Dixon when he states that ‘The West’s continuing ideological domination of the Middle East in the twentieth century is rooted in economic power, a fact which has not prevented the development of a critical response’. See: John Spencer Dixon, Representations of the East in English and French Travel Writing 1798-1882 with Particular Reference to Egypt, Unpub. Diss. (Warwick: University of Warwick, 1991), p.4.
36-W. M. Gattie, “What English People Read” in Fortnightly Review, LII (1889), p. 320. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts, by mentioning its title, 'What English People Read'.
37-Owing to the fact that the texts that will be discussed in this particular chapter have been classified or named by various authors, publishers and critics under different popular terms within the same literary genre such as crime, detective, espionage, spy and thriller, it seems more helpful to select one of these terms in order to avoid repetition, and confusion of terminology. Therefore, apart from original quotations from named writers and critics, the term 'thriller' will be used hereafter. It is used exclusively about the rougher kinds of suspense stories, which seem to be the English tradition; in others it is used inclusively, in the American tradition, about a wide range of genres, from the classic detective story to the hard-boiled adventure story. See: Lars Ole Sauerberg, “Literature in Figures: An Essay on Popularity of Thrillers” in Orbis Litterarum, 1983 vol. 38. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts, by mentioning its shortened title, 'Literature in Figures'.
38-”Letter From S.J. Hamrick” (pseudonym W.T. Tyler) to the author, dated 30 October, 1984. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts, by mentioning its shortened title, 'Letter'.
39-In 1903, the same year that he was making a reappearance on the literary scene in The Empty House, Sherlock Holmes made his debut on the screen in an American film made by the American Mutoscope and Bioscope Company entitled Sherlock Holmes Baffled. From the silent film Sherlock Holmes Baffled in 1903 to The Seven Per Cent Solution of 1976, Sherlock Holmes has occupied a special place in the history of the cinema. See: David Stuart Davies, Holmes of the Movies (London: New English Library, 1976), p. 17.
40-Tony Bennett, Popular Fiction (London: Routledge, 1990), p. 248. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the text, by mentioning its title, ' Popular Fiction'.
41-Edmund Wilson, Rudyard Kipling's Kim ed. Harold Bloom (New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987), p. 43. Also see: Culture and Imperialism, pp. 161-90.
42-Roger Lancelyn Green, “J.H. Millar reviews Kim” in Kipling: The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971), p. 270.
43-Edmund Wilson, The Wound and the Bow (Oxford: Oxford Univ. press, 1947).
44-Rudyard Kipling, Kim (ed. With Introduction and Notes by Edward W. Said) (London: Penguin Books, 1987), p. 45. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts, by mentioning its shortened title, 'Introduction and Notes'.
45-Edmund Wilson, “The Kipling That Nobody Read” in The Wound and the Bow (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1947), pp. 100-103.
46-The first Sherlock Holmes novel published as A Study in Scarlet appeared in Beeton's Christmas Annual in 1887.
47-Noted in Reeva S. Simon, The Middle East in Crime Fiction (New York: Lilian Barber Press, 1989), p. 18. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts or footnotes, by mentioning its shortened title, 'The Middle East'. Also see: Erskine Childers, The Riddle of the Sands, Ist pub. 1903 (London: Penguin, 1952).
48-John Buchan, Prester John (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons., 1910), p. 88.
49-Brian V. Street, The Savage in Literature (London: Routledge and Paul Kegan, 1975), p.41. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts, by mentioning its shortened title, 'The Savage'.
50-Angus Wilson, The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling (London: Secker and Walburg, 1977), p. 132.
51-Noel Behn, “Brittania's Bull Dog” in Armchair Detective, Fall, 1984 vol. 17, p. 368. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts, by mentioning its title, 'Brittania's Bull Dog'.
52-Andy East, “The Spy in the Dark: A History of Espionage Fiction” in Arancgaus Detective, Winter, 1986 vol. 19, p. 24. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts, by mentioning its shortened title, 'The Spy in the Dark'.
53-In a particular reference to interview investigations such as Euromonitor (Euromonitor Book Readership Survey) and BPFRS (The Book Promotion Feasibility Study Report) as well as from best seller lists (based on information from retail booksellers as in the Sunday Times and W.H. Smith and Sons Ltd's internal information paper; Smith's Trade News). See: 'Literature in Figures', p. 100.
54-B. Merry, The Anatomy of the Spy Thriller (Dublin: [n.p.], 1977). Also noted in 'Literature in Figures', p. 94.
55-A.P. Hackett, and J.H. Burke, 80 Years of Best Sellers (London: [n.p.], 1977). Ist ed. (1967), 70 Years of Best Sellers, p. 61. Further reference to this work will be given after quotations in the texts, by mentioning the titles of two different editions; '80 Years of Best Sellers' and '70 Years of Best Sellers'.
56-’Until the mid-1970s, when the lucrative rewards
of the spy novel\thriller formula attracted the attention of amateurs looking
for ways to combine their expertise in specialised fields with money-earning
activity, most genre authors were professionals who adopted a particular
style and format and wrote for a devoted following. Between 1942 and his
death in 1975, British espionage novelist Simon Harvester, for example,
wrote some forty-four thrillers in addition to his other novels...
Joining the professionals, we now find travellers, wives whose husbands were stationed in the Middle East, academics, bankers and businessmen, engineers, politicians, artists, lawyers, public relations executives, computer experts, government workers, and architects who have been attracted to the possibility of high advance royalties and instant acclaim.
Peace corps volunteers, foreign service officers, and retired military personnel tend to use their field experience and cultural empathy as a base for discussion of the impact of modernisation or Westernisation on the Middle East or as warnings to a perceived need. One of the most convincing, Efrem Sigel, author of The Kermanshah Transfer (1973), spent time in Israel and in Iran, travelled to Kurdistan, and observed the Kurdish revolt.
Academics bring language acuity and knowledge of the area to bear in their plots. Richard Bulliet's The Tomb of the Twelfth Imam (1979) provides a historical exposition of Shiite Islam and links it to the political, social, and religious convulsions of modern Iran.
At least two politicians have tried their hands at writing fiction with a Middle Eastern motif. Israeli Knesset member Michael Bar Zohar, who also writes under the name Michael Barak, has penned three novels of conspiracy between Russians, Nazis, Arabs, and Israelis. The Secret List of Heinrich Roehm (1976) is an intelligence duel between the MOSSAD and KGB, while The Phantom Conspiracy (1980) concerns Arab blackmail of an American senator who is running for president.
More esoteric contributions come from architects and financial consultants. Oscar Newman provides a detailed blueprint of the architectural intricies of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art when he has the gold mask of King Tut stolen from the exhibit in order to blackmail parties over oil rights in the Sinai. The plot in Unmasking a King (1981) takes place during the Egyptian-Israeli peace negotiations.
Journalists, too, follow their assignments, first reporting fact and often recapitulating the events in fiction. Eric Pace of the New York Times, who has filed reports from the Middle East, uses scenes of his reportage in his novels. Other print and electronic journalists - Colin Smith, Richard Cox, Matthew Eden, Gavin Lyall, and Christopher Fitzsimmons from Britain; Australian Colin Mason; German journalist Michael Heim; Israeli Matti Golan; and such well-known American personalities as Leonard Harris, Marvin Kalb, and Ted Koppel of American television; and critics John Crosby and Stephen Hunter have written thrillers or spy novels’. See: The Middle East, pp. 28-34.
57-Joel Hopkins, “An Interview With Eric Ambler”, Journal
of Popular Culture 9, 1975.